Published March 21, 2021, 12:00 am

Nutrition and Battling COVID-19

Nutrition and battling COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global challenge, so scientists and researchers are attempting to produce a specific vaccine with 100 percent efficacy. Even though different vaccines of varying efficacy have already been prepared, other infections that are resistant to antimicrobials are highly likely to prevail in society. Nutritional status is very critical in order to maintain a healthy immune system against the virus. 
Certain variables, such as lifestyle, age, health, sex and medicine, influence nutritional status. The healthy group of individuals was used as a resilience metric during the COVID-19 pandemic for destabilization. Optimum nutrition and nutrient intake influence the immune system through gene expression, cell activation and signal molecule modification. Different dietary ingredients also contribute to the composition of the microbial intestines and form the body's immune response. Therefore, Increased emphasis on strengthening the immune system can greatly decrease chances of sickness in the present situation. An appropriate intake of zinc, iron and vitamins A, B 12, B6, C and E is crucial for the maintenance of immune function. The individual has been Given the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is critical for individuals to maintain a healthy diet now. 

Self-isolation, lockdown, and social separation are important behavior changes for flattening the disease curve, even if they have a serious impact on one's life. Containing yourself in your own home has significant health effects, including changes in eating habits, sleep patterns, and physical activity. This could promote sedentary habits that are detrimental to mental and physical well-being and could lead to an increased risk of obesity. 

Fear and anxiety can also lead to changing dietary habits, leading to unhealthy dietary patterns and a decreased willingness to eat. 

A balanced diet can create an immune system that is more resistant to viral attacks At present, there is no evidence available to support that vitamin supplementation can boost the immune system to prevent from viral infections except vitamin c. One of the primary vitamin components that makes it water-soluble for a robust immune system is vitamin C. 90 mg/d for males and 75 mg/d for females are the recommended daily supply of vitamin C. Additionally, we need to be conscious of specific kinds of food that can activate our immune system in order to fight with COVID-19. 

There are professional dietary guidelines that exist to decrease the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic: 

● Every day, eat fruits with the size of two cups (4 servings). The fruits which should be served daily are as follow: 

o   pummelo

o   Longman fruit

o   orange

o   papaya

o   pineapple

o   grapefruit

o   cantaloupe

o   strawberry

o   banana

o   apple

o   guava 

● Eat fresh vegetables of 2.5 cups (5 servings) such as:

o   green chili pepper

o   broccoli

o   coriander (dried)

o   lime

o   kale

o   ginger

o   garlic

o   green bell peppers

o   legumes (lentils and beans)

● Eat whole nuts and grains of 180 grams or 2 cups, such as:

o   unprocessed maize

o   cassava

o   taro

o   oats

o   potato

o   roots such as yam, brown rice, millet, wheat
o   Eat nuts such as pistachio, coconut, almond 

● It is possible to eat red meat at least once or twice a week and poultry twice a week. Eat or drink foods of animal sources (e.g., milk, eggs, fish, fish) and 160 grams of beans and meat. 
● Instead of snacks high in fat, salt or sugar, reach for healthier options like raw vegetables and fresh fruits. 

● Don’t overcook raw vegetables because significant nutrients such as minerals and vitamins are lost.(Gao-feng Yuan et al., Chuli Zeng et al., Atli Arnarson BSc, PhD

● When choosing canned or dried fruit and vegetables, opt for those with no added salt or sugar.  

● The salt intake should be limited to 5 grams a day only. 

● Instead of saturated fats, eat unsaturated fats (found in sunflower, maize oil, canola, olive oil, nuts, soy, fish, and avocado). 

● It is recommended to drink 8 to 10 glasses of water a day. It transports nutrients into the blood, eliminates waste, and helps to regulate the body's temperature. 

● Try to avoid all concentrated, carbonated, and fizzy juices and any sugar-containing drinks. 

● Maintain a healthy lifestyle by ensuring a regular sleep schedule and adding meditation into your day. Proper sleep at night will help to encourage the functioning of the immune system. 

In order to avoid contamination, adequate personal protective equipment for workers and food safety officials must be provided by the food safety management system. Scholars have found that there is no evidence available to support the virus transmission from food or food packaging. However, in order to decrease the contamination risk, acceptable food practices should always be followed: 

● Wash fruit and vegetables before eating. 

● Each time before and after use, disinfect, rinse, and wash surfaces and objects.

● Keep raw and cooked food separate, as this would protect from the spread of dangerous microbes from natural foods to cooked foods. 

● For cooked and natural foods, use alternate utensils and chopping boards to avoid cross-contamination. 

● For the preparation of a meal, workers, and food safety officials should wear gloves. 
● Routinely disinfect common surfaces for example food carts, counters, and door knobs. 

A healthy and balanced diet can contribute to a stronger immune system that is more equipped to defend against viral attacks. A proper intake of nutrients through diet can greatly diminish the risks of nutritional deficiency. Individuals who eat balanced diets typically have stronger immune systems, which decreases potential incidences of chronic disease or infection, like COVID-19. The main purpose of this article is to promote healthy dietary practices that Positively affect the mental and physical well-being of individuals.


1. Bogoch II, Watts A, Thomas-Bachli A, Huber C, Kraemer MU, Khan K. Pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China:potential for international spread via commercial air travel. J Travel Med. 2020;272:1–3. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
2. Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, Zaki SR, Peret T. Emery S, Tong S, et al., editors. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(20):1953–1966. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
3. Aslam MF, Majeed S, Aslam S, Irfan JA. Vitamins:Key role players in boosting up immune response, A mini review Vitam. Miner. 2017;6:153. [Google Scholar]
4. Yousafzai AK, Rasheed MA, Bhutta ZA. Annual research review:improved nutrition–a pathway to resilience. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;54:367–377. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
5. Gleeson M, Nieman DC, Pedersen BK. Exercise, nutrition and immune function. J Sports Sci. 2004;22:115–125. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
6. Macht M. How emotions affect eating:a five-way model. Appetite. 2008;50:1–11. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
7. Anton SD, Miller PM. Do negative emotions predict alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity in older adults? Behav Modif. 2005;29:677–688. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
8. Haug A, Brand-Miller JC, Christophersen OA, McArthur J, Fayet F, Truswell S. A food “lifeboat”:food and nutrition considerations in the event of a pandemic or other catastrophe. Med J Aust. 2007;187:674. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
9. Khayyatzadeh SS. Nutrition and Infection with COVID-19. J Nutr Food Security. 2020;5(2):93–96. [Google Scholar]
10. Wypych TP, Marsland BJ, Ubags ND. The impact of diet on immunity and respiratory diseases. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017;14:339–347. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]